Whether you're in a stockroom, a fast food chain or even a bank, it's not uncommon today to encounter robots doing jobs that humans once did. In fact, tech research firm Business Intelligence estimates that the market for corporate and consumer robots will grow to $1.5 billion by 2019. While this development is exciting, it also drives the debate of whether or not intelligent machinery will challenge the role of human workers.
Others believe that machines are more likely to augment jobs rather than replace them entirely. In fact, technology-supported workers are already a common sight in many industries: iPads provide construction workers with blueprints, 3D printers make patterns for prosthetic devices and drones help farmers monitor seed count and nitrate levels.
We spoke with Patrick McHugh, policy analyst at the North Carolina Budget and Tax Center, to find out how jobs will need to transform to make way for technological changes, and how both the government and companies can prepare for the future of work.
How has technological innovation affected jobs over the past few years?
We are watching the domain of mechanical or machine-aided work extend much further into the realm of what has typically been seen as human labor. We are now in a world where we are replacing cognitive labor with sophisticated algorithms and nimble robotics. The question is whether we will create enough new jobs and professions to replace what is being taken over by machines.
"We are seeing automation, but virtually none of that gain in productivity is turning into increased wages, which is a real problem."
The huge wave of automation that happened in the 1960s and early 1970s didn't lead to massive unemployment—in fact, it went in the opposite direction. As machines spread across factory floors and offices, workers got more productive and saw their paychecks grow accordingly, which fueled a boom in consumer spending that more than made up for the jobs that factory and office technology was taking over. Now, we are seeing automation, but virtually none of that gain in productivity is turning into increased wages, which is a real problem. If wages and income for most consumers don't grow, there won't be enough demand to replace the jobs that are being consumed by technology.
How can policy create a better environment for future jobs, particularly in the gig economy?
Very few of our systems are designed to work effectively when we are in the position of say, an Uber driver. As technology allows more fluid and temporary contractual relationships instead of traditional employment, most of the ways that we protect workers in the United States will have to be updated. Healthcare, retirement, unemployment insurance and workplace safety requirements are all mostly organized around a codified employer-employee relationship, which often doesn't exist in the gig economy.
If we take a hands-off approach, technology could make many workers lives more uncertain and insecure. However, if we get the policy right, we can be in much better shape.
How can companies prepare today for changes in the future of work?
Some of it is putting pressure on the political environment to take change seriously. It is also central to deepen relationships between companies and training providers, such as community colleges.
"It is reasonable to expect that we have to retool our understanding of the education system to match a world where everyone needs to continually update his or her skills."
It is reasonable to expect that we have to retool our understanding of the education system to match a world where everyone needs to continually update his or her skills. What someone got trained for at 18 won't be what the market demands when they are in their 40s. What we traditionally see as continuing or remedial education will move into lifelong learning to stay active in the job market.
What types of public solutions would be helpful for the future of work?
Both at the state and federal level, we need to make sure work pays a living wage. We have to look at minimum wage laws and income tax credit or income support. If we get reasonable wage and income growth for most folks, we can expect consumer demand to make up for what we are losing to machines.
"We are going to have to contemplate a future where moving from job to job is not an exception, but a normal course of action."
Unemployment insurance no longer offers the bridge to the next job. Beyond the immediate limitations we are going to have to contemplate a future where moving from job to job is not an exception, but a normal course of action. We need to find a way for people who don't have a traditional employment arrangement to have a safety net of some sort.
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4 Ways to Expand Your Social Media Recruiting Strategy
Social media is ubiquitous, and companies are using it in many different and innovative ways for enhancing their sales, marketing and customer services. So why is it then that many HR departments still fail to see social media as more than a job board? Outside of the office, the same HR people happily engage with friends on Facebook, share news and ideas on Twitter, look at pictures on Instagram and send snaps on Snapchat. But when they put their work hat on they seemingly forget why they use social in the way they (and hundreds of millions of other users) do every day, and resort back to just posting jobs (in a boring way) on social media! Of course there is nothing wrong with job posting, and it's often an effective approach to reaching an audience, but not all of the time. According to LinkedIn, only 12 percent of the working population are actively seeking new employment. So, if all you do is post jobs on your LinkedIn, Twitter or Facebook page, you are consciously ignoring the other 88 percent of the working population who might be interested in hearing more about your company in general. Creating and sharing interesting content about your company such as employee stories or volunteer days help bring your employer brand to life. It might even trigger people to reach out to you and find out more about your job opportunities. In truth, mixing up your social media feeds with a variety of content will provide more depth and candidate engagement. Here are four ways to expand your social media strategy and engage with new potential candidates. 1) Candidate Sourcing With people using an average of more than five social networks, sourcing talent via social media makes absolute sense. Branch out from just using LinkedIn and look to sites like Twitter, Facebook and Google+ to search for and engage with prospective talent. Try search tools like Followerwonk to search Twitter bios for keywords and job titles, a clever Chrome browser extension called Intelligence Search that easily searches Facebook and using the search bar at the top of Google+. They will help you identify new talent. If you are looking to build social media pipelines then try Hello Talent. It is a great free tool that allows you to build talent pipelines from many different social networks by using a browser extension. 2) Competitor Monitoring Social media is a fantastic source of information and data. By using tools like Hootsuite and Tweetdeck, you can monitor the social media activity of your competitors. Both of these tools allow you to set up search columns, where you can enter things like keywords, hashtags, Twitter names and track when any of these are mentioned on sites such as Twitter. You can use the interact or use the insights accordingly. 3) Resources for Candidates Consider your Facebook page (or Twitter channel) as a real-time customer services channel for you to engage and communicate with both new and existing candidates in the recruitment process. Provide links to your social media pages to candidates at all stages in the process and encourage them to visit the pages and ask questions about any part of the process. You can also share useful information about working for the company, including locations, employees and other relevant news. 4) Live Recruitment Events Not everyone can attend the many recruitment events happening every month. But by using social media like Twitter, Facebook Live, Instagram and Snapchat, you can easily provide live commentary for these events you attend or host. Real-time video via Facebook Live and interaction via Twitter chats are superb examples of ways to regularly engage with a live audience of potential candidates. With social media firmly established in our working lives, I question how much more evidence HR departments will need to fully embrace this "new" form of candidate engagement. Photo: Twenty20
Cartoon Coffee Break: Unconventional Recruiting
Editor's Note: This post is part of our "Cartoon Coffee Break" series. While we take talent management seriously, we also know it's important to have a good laugh. Check back every two weeks for a new ReWork cartoon. Missed the Recruiting Trends conference? From the state of recruiting automation adoption, to the role that the human element still plays in recruiting, our recap covers everything you need to know. Header photo: Creative Commons
The Latest Office Benefit Is Tackling Student Debt
Modern companies are more than just employers — increasingly, they are also gyms, cafeterias and even laundromats. As perks like yoga class, free lunch and complimentary dry cleaning become the norm, companies continue to push the boundaries on ways to attract and retain top talent by providing much more than a paycheck to employees. The latest in the slew of new workplace benefits? Student loan assistance. In April, Chegg partnered with Tuition.io to give full-time employees extra cash for student loan reduction. Then in September, consulting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers announced it would provide up to $1,200 to help employees pay off loans annually. As a benefit, student loan assistance programs are certainly still in their infancy— one survey found that only 3 percent of companies offer such a benefit. But experts say that may soon change as companies seek to differentiate themselves in a competitive hiring environment. "We think student loan benefits are poised to be the next big benefit; similar to what 401(k) matching was when it was first introduced," says Dana Rosenberg, who leads employer and affinity group partnerships at Earnest, a lender that offers student loan refinancing and works with companies to create loan pay-down programs. The Burden of Student Debt Such programs could be extremely attractive to debt-laden Millennials. Around 40 million Americans collectively carry $1.2 trillion in student loan debt, and the graduating class of 2015 was the most indebted class in history with an average debt of $35,000 (a superlative they won't hold for long come May 2016.) For employers looking to adjust benefits to correspond to the changing demographics of their employee base, student loan programs hit the mark. "In 2016, our employees will be 80 percent millennials, and we also hire close to 11,000 employees directly out of school each year," says Terri McClements, Washington Metro managing partner of PwC. With student debt often preventing young people from participating in 401(k) plans and reaching traditional life milestones, the benefit could potentially make a large impact on employees' financial and personal well-being. A study from the American Student Association found that 73 percent of people with student loans reported putting off saving for retirement or other investments due to their debt, 75 percent reported delaying a home purchase and 27 percent reported it was difficult to buy daily necessities. "Student loans can be a very stressful thing to deal with, so if we can give our employees peace of mind, that's great," says Caroline Gennaro, corporate communications manager at Chegg. The Allure for Employers Student debt assistance programs aren't just attractive to employees, either. Rosenberg says there are significant benefits for the organizations that offer them as well. "Employers that offer programs to help their employees get out from under their debt load are seeing big benefits: increased retention, more competitive recruiting and, perhaps most importantly, happier employees who have additional cash flow to put towards their life goals," Rosenberg explains. Rosenberg says happier employees are more engaged employees, who tend to be more productive. Studies show that companies with high employee engagement experience lower turnover and have double the rate of organizational success than their less-engaged counterparts. Student loan benefit programs may also lead to a more diverse workforce, attracting employees whose financial backgrounds meant they had to take on more debt for their education. "Diversity and inclusion are also very important to us, so the ability to offer this benefit can help minorities who come out of school with a higher debt burden," says McClements. A Promising Response Companies say the response to their student loan assistance programs have been overwhelmingly positive. Chegg has had more than 80 people sign up since they started their program this summer, and they've already eliminated roughly 86 years of collective loan repayments for their employees. Companies are also finding these programs are a way to differentiate themselves from organizations that may offer more generic benefits. "As a company in the San Francisco Bay Area, we are always looking to attract the best and brightest in the industry, and this benefit is a big draw," says Gennaro. Photo: Shutterstock